IBMT Selskochoziaystvenaya St., 11, build. 3
Moscow 129226, Russia

Tel.: +7 903-621-59-17


- Automation of the steelmaking processes (steelmaking, secondary metallurgy, online production planning and coordination of operation of steelmaking facilities)
- Technological consulting on optimization and upgrading of the employed production processes


The modern level of hardware and software is known to be sufficiently high for introduction of automatic process control systems. The development of the steelmaking processes control systems is limited by the third indispensable constituent, i.e., brain-ware. The brain-ware contains the description of the tasks of control and methods of their solution. The brain-ware belongs to the domain of specialists in certain fields, who know, what is taking place inside a facility and how this facility should be operated; thus they are able to determine what and in what way should be automated. The key factor, which determines the quality of the whole control system, is namely the efficiency of this very part, i.e., the method of developing a solution.

The most reliable and efficient method is the use of a mathematical model, describing all the processes, which take place inside the facility to be controlled, thus making it possible to forecast the process flow and determine the necessary manipulations.

Yet, until now it hasn’t been possible to create a numeric model, which would in a sufficiently adequate and precise way describe the processes of heat and mass transfer which constitute the essence of the steelmaking heat. The creation of this model has been prevented by the complexity of these processes and numerous factors, exercising influence upon their course.

The absence of such a model has put an obstacle to the attempts to achieve a significant progress in the development of automatic process control systems for the steelmaking facilities.


Many attempts have been made to develop control systems which aren’t based on theoretical models. They are various kinds of “Statistic systems”, “Expert systems”, and “Guidelines systems”. The last ones belong to the most widespread control systems now, they are based on “masks”, “recipes”, “best practice”, etc. All these names imply operating the process on the basis of some preset norms.

These systems, known as “ersatzes”, have one defect in common – they are operable within the narrow range of the process conditions. Since in case of modification of these conditions operation of any system ceases to cope with the actual situation, it proves to be of low reliability. Thus the system turns out to be invalid and not applicable by the personnel.

Dozens of steelmaking units have been commissioned on the territory of the CIS since the last 20 years, all of them equipped with automatic process control systems. But practically nowhere the steelmaking heat is automatically controlled. The role of the automatic process control systems is minimized to purely informative functions: collection, storing and visualization of the process data. The heat, as before, is being controlled by the steelmaker.

Scientific breakthrough

Intensive research in the field of thermodynamics and physical chemistry of metallurgical processes in the middle of the 20th century has created solid theoretical grounds for turning metallurgy into a strictly mathematically based science.

Guided by this basis, the IBMT specialists have developed the models, which describe with high precision the whole set of phenomena taking place during the steelmaking process. The models enable us to calculate the chemical composition and temperature of steel, slag, gas and non-metallic inclusions at any moment of the heat.

More details about the new theory of steelmaking processes simulation could be found on our web-site in the publication “Steelmaking Processes Control on the Basis of Modern Physical-Chemical Concepts” in the “Library” section (in Russian).

Creation of such models in combination with application of computer aids has enabled the researchers to make a qualitative leap in controlling the steelmaking processes. They have succeeded to automate the most important function, which till late has been the steelmaker’s prerogative : that of developing and taking decisions on operating the heat.

J. Willard Gibbs The GIBBS® is a family name of the IBMT control systems, in honour of J. Willard Gibbs, the founder of thermodynamics.

(The early versions of the systems are known under the name of ORACUL).
Besides the control systems the IBMT specialists have developed a computer simulator of steelmaking processes, which makes it possible to simulate with a high degree of accuracy variations in time in the chemical composition of metal and slag, as well as in their temperature, due to changes in the parameters of the heat or secondary metallurgy processing.

Use of this tool enables the steelmakers to find optimal versions and regimes of the production techniques, as well as to reveal sometimes concealed causes of quality problems or overconsumption of raw materials.

GIIBS® process optimization systems

Structural Principles of the GIBBS® Control Systems

The GIBBS® control systems belong to the new generation of Science-Based Systems for control of metallurgical processes. The basis of these systems rests upon scientific knowledge.

The creation of such systems has been made possible by the breakthrough achievements in the thermodynamics of the steelmaking processes. The new theory ensures the highest accuracy of computation of the metal and slag chemical composition.

The thermodynamic model used in the GIBBS® systems is the IBMT own scientific product. The model is based on the latest fundamental theory, describing redistribution of elements within the system “metal-slag-gas”, as well as on a high capacity algorithm, which makes it possible to:

A) adapt models to an individual steelmaking unit;
B) take into account all the significant events of each actual heat.

The GIBBS® systems allow to make use of the whole store of the steelmaking theory and practice during the online control of the processes, thus permitting to find instantly the most efficient solutions under the changing conditions.

The GIBBS® Control Systems Advantages

Use of accurate thermodynamical calculations in the course of development of solutions has made it possible for the first time to apply a number of functions of fundamental importance, which determine the top adequacy, accuracy and reliability of the GIBBS® systems.

Situation Control

The models and algorithms used in the GIBBS® systems ensure online computing of all the control operations taking into account all the deviations generated in the course of the heat.

Process optimization

In case the process flow deviates from the normal course of the heat, the GIBBS® systems opt for the most efficient decision in the actual situation. It ensures maximum fulfillment of the daily production plan and minimization of losses due to external technical failures. On-line process optimization of the heat process is a function of utmost importance, which determines the efficiency of the control systems and which until recently hasn’t been available with its full resources . In this respect the GIBBS® systems are above any comparison with any other systems.


The flexibility of the GIBBS® systems, their ability to adapt the technological regimes to varying conditions ensures their stability, operability in any situations. The reliability of the systems is the most important factor of efficient control of the heat , which allows to maintain the operating rhythm of the whole production division.

Versatility and stability

The GIBBS® systems don’t require any strict standardization of processes, they allow to make use of any possible raw materials, inclusive of those, which have never been used before. They set no boundaries to the product mix as far as the range of steel grades is concerned and facilitate implementation of new steel grades.

Reduction in the impact of the “human factor”

The above listed benefits ensure the main advantage of the GIBBS® systems, i.e., their ability to control steelmaking processes in the maximum automated mode possible. It doesn’t only reduce the number of faulty actions of the personnel, but in some situations allows to correct the mistakes made, decreases the dependence on steelmakers’ qualification, improves the general technological discipline.

Upgrading of the GIBBS® systems

The systems have an open architecture, which enables the user in case of necessity to modify the systems with or without assistance of the IBMT specialists.


The GIBBS® systems can be adapted to any steelmaking equipment, as well as interfaced with any adjacent systems of control means (1-st level automatic process control systems, EPR-, MES-, etc.), no matter what company has produced or supplied them.

The offered systems don’t require replacement of the systems, already employed by the customer, the GIIBS® systems are constructed on their basis , complement and unite them into a single integral complex.

The above listed benefits of the GIBBS® systems allow to easily master their use, the personnel trusts them. As a result , heats are operated in the maximum automated mode possible, which ensures their stability, predictability and facilitates control of the whole production division.

The GIBBS® systems have been tested on the production scale so many times as a part of the already existing automatic process control system of various facilities and during performance of work in the way of technological consulting. They have proved to be highly reliable, very stable under varying process conditions and very accurate in conforming with the predicted values.

The above listed advantages of the GIBBS® systems result in obtaining a number of significant achievements, and namely :

Increase in the production efficiency:

- reduction in power consumption per heat;
- decrease in losses of steel;
- reduction in consumption of deoxidizing, alloying and other materials;
- possibility of a more flexible use of different grades of ferroalloys;
- quick implementation of a new product mix;
- better coordination of operation of adjacent facilities;
- improvement in the capacity of single facilities and the production division as a whole;
- planning of the shop operation in the automatic mode.

The GIBBS® systems possess the highest availability possible – even after half a year of idling time of a furnace the GIBBS® system is able to control the first heat in the automatic mode; they ensure stability of the production process (“NOW THE BEST STEELMAKER IS WORKING 24 HOURS ROUND THE CLOCK AND WITHOUT ANY DAYS OFF!”), a reliable predictability of the results and duration of the technological processes and diminish the ecological load upon the environments.

Evaluation of the GIBBS® systems efficiency shows that the pay-back time on the invested funds more often than not amounts to less than half a year. It provides grounds to estimate introduction of the GIBBS® systems as a highly profitable investment, ensuring considerable and long time advantages on the market. The investment doesn’t require considerable funds, which would push up steel production costs, but will reduce these costs at the expense of an increase in the production efficiency.

Quality Management

The quality of the steel produced plays the key role when supplying the goods to the high profitable segments of the market. In this particular case the advantages given by the GIBBS® systems ensure significant and stable competitive properties. The GIBBS® systems provide:

- stabilization of the steel quality throughout all the heats and improving it to an ever higher level;
- possibility of producing steel of an improved quality within a more narrow range of tolerances for the chemical composition;
-online control of the analysis and quantity of non-metallic inclusions, reduction in the general level of contamination of steel and prevention of generation of undesirable inclusions.

These advantages have been made possible due to:

-accurate calculation of the current values of the chemical composition, the level of oxidation and temperature of metal and slag;
-precise forecast of variation in the composition of metal and slag in the course of the heat, resulting from the techniques applied;
-continuous on-line control of the composition and quantity of non-metallic inclusions at any moment of the period of secondary treatment of steel;
-accurate calculation of the operations, necessary for producing the heat, deoxidizing it, alloying, modifying.

The accuracy and reliability of the GIBBS® systems create the conditions, necessary for bringing down to a minimum deviations in the steel quality from heat to heat, notwithstanding non-stable production conditions.

Stabilization of the steel composition and its cleanliness from heat to heat not only improves the quality of steel products, dispatched to the customer, but also improves castability of steel, reduces its rejection rate in the next stages of processing.

The IMBT offers the following control systems:

- EAF control systems,
- BOF control systems,
- Secondary metallurgy control systems,
- Production control integrated system.

EAF process control system


The GIBBS® EAF control system allows to use it with any electric arc furnace: of any tonnage, any design, equipped with any blowing devices (lances, injectors, burners, bottom blowing) or without them, operated on AC or DC, with any basic automation means assigned to them of any producer or supplier, notwithstanding separate devices and automation means employed on it.

The GIBBS® system provides the possibility of using any kind of charge raw materials (scrap of all types, also preliminarily heated, liquid hot metal and solid cast iron, directly reduced iron, metallized pellets, etc.), alloying, slag forming, deoxidizing additives.

The GIBBS® EAF control system could be used both for melting of semi-product by running in the furnace only the oxidizing period and production of full cycle made steel according to the double slag practice. In any of the cases the necessary tapping operations are also computed.

The GIBBS® system operates on the continuous basis, which allows to use the possibilities of optimization during the total duration of the heat, from the very beginning up to the end. In case the steelmaker changes over to the manual operation, the GIBBS® system keeps the track of all the events taking place at this time and maintains the readiness at any moment to take over the control, to restore the automatic regime of control. Under manual operation regime the GIBBS® system carries on operation in the regime “Adviser of the steelmaker” and sends to the display recommendations on the process control.

Continuous control of the heat process and non-stop search for most efficient regimes ensures the maximum possible reduction in the production costs. Operating the heat in the automatic mode permits to bring down to a minimum the negative impact of “the human factor”, to reliably comply with the technological restrictions, to stabilize the run of the heat, as well as its duration and the quality of steel produced.

The high quality of steel, tapped from the furnace facilitates its further adjustment and lays the basis for achieving the super quality of finished steel products.


Summing up the above listed advantages of the GIBBS® EAF control system, we see that they provide for obtaining the following practical results :

+ reduction in the duration of the process (within the range of 3 up to 15% , depending on the initial condition) and increase in the productivity of the facility;
+ reduction in the production costs of the production stage at the expense of decrease in the consumption of raw materials (by 2-5%) and utilities (by 3-7%) ;
+increase in the lifetime of the furnace lining, technological equipment ;
+ stabilization of the steel quality ;
+ general stabilization of the production process and simplification of planning tasks at the shop.

Our experience has proved, that implementation of the GIBBS® EAF control system is a most beneficial investment project: its high return ensures pay-back of the costs for implementation within 0.5 – 1 year.

LD (BOF) process control system

“Knowledge of certain principles makes up for ignorance of certain facts”
(C. A. Helvetius, the renowned French philosopher)


Operating the heat in the basic oxygen furnace heavily needs the GIBBS® process control system: steelmaking in the BOF is often distinguished by a complete lack of possibility of taking samples and measuring temperature in the course of the heat, consequently the complex problem of choice of practice for running the heat and determination of the time of its end is solved by the operator literally by guesswork, by intuition. Calculated support would be here of great necessity and use.

Use of the GIBBS® BOF control systems enables steelmakers to solve this problem: the thermodynamical models, on the basis of which the system is conceived, describe the processes inside the facility with high accuracy and allow to compute with sufficient precision the chemical composition and temperature of steel and slag at any moment without any direct measurement. It provides the possibility of exact determination, what is required for the maximum efficiency of operating the heat.

In case the BOF is equipped with a quick acting system of testing of the discharge gases, the GIBBS® system may make use of these data as well, which will improve the reliability of the performance of the control system.


On the basis of the task for a heat and information on the charge raw materials the GIBBS® BOF control system calculates a detailed schedule of all the necessary operations. It’s in conformity with this schedule that the commands are formed, which are send to the basis level of the automatic process control system for being put into action. The system calculates all the tapping operations as well.

In case of amendment of the data on the charged materials or discovery of any deviations the system carries out recalculation of the whole set of technological operations, necessary for obtaining the preset chemical composition and temperature values in the end of the heat . The exact conformity of the regimes of operating the heat , computed by the GIBBS® system, with the actual current situation at any moment of the time is provided in this way.


With the BOF, as well as with any other facility, each next heat differs from the previous one, and it’s practically impossible to take into consideration these variations and adequately adjust the technological regimes in the manual mode of operation. Great uncertainty often causes the operator to make a considerable allowance for the process parameters, slightly “overblowing” the steel bath and conscientiously deviating from optimum values.

In high capacity facilities such deviations from an optimum would cost pretty penny.
The computed support, provided by the GIBBS® BOF control systems considerably reduces the value of possible mistakes, when choosing regimes of the process and determining the moment of its end. It enables the operator to significantly diminish reoxidation of the steel bath and consequently to decrease the ignition losses of steel, oxygen and deoxidizers consumption, ease detrimental impact of slag at the expense of lower FeO content in slag and prolong the life time of the lining.

The above listed benefits make implementation of the GIBBS® BOF control systems a highly lucrative investment project : the invested funds are paid back within the first 1-3 months, ensuring in the long-time perspective elevated production efficiency.

Secondary metallurgy control system


Use of strict thermodynamical models has made it possible to create for the first time a number of functions , which weren’t available before. Thus the GIBBS® secondary metallurgy (SM) control system possesses some important peculiarities, which distinguish it from other systems.

The GIBBS® SM control system, unlike other similar systems, operates not as a single facility, but as the whole site of secondary metallurgy processing, inclusive of all its facilities.

The GIBBS® SM control system keeps track of all the steel ladles, which are to be found on the site simultaneously: from the moment of tapping from the furnace till passing the ladle to the continuous casting aisle. Variations of temperature, chemical composition and the degree of contamination of steel with non-metallic inclusions are controlled in all the steel ladles. Processing of steel is taken into account in the steel adjustment , argon stirring units, ladle-furnaces, as well as all the changes of steel condition during the waiting time (before processing and before casting). Correspondingly, the GIBBS® SM control system covers all the above listed facilities.

When doing this, the system performs an accurate calculation of an optimum practice of steel treatment, of a set of all the necessary operations, inclusive of the vacuum treatment, steel heating regime, quantity of alloying and slag forming materials, which are indispensable for providing the narrow ranges of the elements content.

Continuous control of the situation enables the operator, in case deviations arise, to recalculate an optimum practice of the process operation in the on-line mode.
The unique peculiarity of the offered system is continuous control of the composition and number of non-metallic inclusions in processed steel and recommendations on the steel treatment taking into account its contamination with inclusions.


Implementation of the GIBBS® SM control system allows to ensure super stable quality of steel produced, provides the possibility of manufacturing high quality steel within narrow ranges of the chemical composition. The quality of the steel produced plays the key role when bringing the goods to the high profitable segments of the market. In this particular case the advantages provided by the GIBBS® systems ensure significant and stable competitive properties.
Besides, the high quality of steel ensures its better castability, reduces its rejection rate in the next stages of processing.

The online tracking of generated deviations ensures stable running of the technological process under frequently varying conditions of the actual production process.

Continuous search for more efficient regimes allows to reduce the secondary metallurgy treatment costs to a minimum.

A peculiar role is assigned to the secondary metallurgy treatment in time coordination between tapping of semi-product and its casting. That’s why a reduction in the duration of the secondary metallurgy cycle, provided by the GIBBS® SM control system, proves to be of extreme importance. Besides boosting up the productivity of the site , it also makes its operation more flexible, which facilitates the coordination in the performance of the facilities.

The GIBBS® SM control system creates the information environment, necessary for construction and operation of the Production control integrated system.

Production control integrated system

The manual mode of operation of technological processes has introduced the element of non-stability and thus in a considerable way complicated the operation of the production chain as a whole. Upon implementation of the GIBBS® process control systems, able to operate the heat in the automatic mode and ensure a reliable conformity with the task of a heat, there have been created prerequisites making it possible to automate solution of problems of a higher level of control, in particular, of the online production division operation.

The accepted approach permits to integrate the available means of automation of the 1-st, 2-nd levels and the system of development of technological solutions into a single system of dynamic control of steel production. This system not only performs informative illustrative functions, but also provides the automatic control of all the production chain of steel making and casting.


Online control of the multistage process of steel production at the shop, inclusive of :

- production planning;
- tracking of the course of the production schedule fulfillment;
- correction of the schedule in the online mode;
- centralized control and registration of the flow of the processes with the basic facilities of the shop;
- creation of a single database on fulfillment of all the technological operations in each heat.

Information tracking :

- creation of through report documents (passports, certificates, etc.);
- keeping records of manufactured products , raw and other materials, utilities;
- calculation of the online total costs for the products manufacture;
- integration of the shop operation systems into the all-mill control system.


Implementation of the GIBBS® Production control integrated system ensures an increase in the quality of the online planning at the expense of the through control and complying with the techniques from charge calculating up to casting. Automation of the online control at the shop makes it possible to derive extra benefits, represented by adding up the synergy effect of uniting the earlier separate automatic control systems of various facilities and avoidance of the losses caused by unwise decisions taken under modified conditions.

It results in a considerable reduction of production costs at the expense of decrease of utilities and material costs, increase in the productivity of the steelmaking division, improvement and stabilization of the steel quality. Besides, a better coordination of the facilities performance creates conditions for an increase in the reliability and long life of the technological equipment. Placing at the disposal of the shop and mill technological personnel the information on the course of the processes and its feeding into the control systems of a higher level boosts the operability of the enterprise.

GIBBS simulator

The software package Simulator of metallurgical processes is intended for development of the techniques of steelmaking and secondary metallurgy treatment by means of simulation modeling of heat and mass transfer processes in the steelmaking facilities.

The Simulator of metallurgical processes aids in solving a number of tasks :

- improvement of the adopted techniques, search for more efficient technological solutions;
- development of suitable practice, when introducing a new product;
- adaptation of the adopted practice in case of any modification of the production conditions (substitution of materials, upgrading of the equipment, etc.);
- calculation of the quantity of the materials (charge components, deoxidizers, alloying, slag forming), necessary for obtaining steel of the preset chemical composition;
- computation of the necessary utilities consumption per heat;
- in case of availability of the prices for materials and utilities calculation of direct production costs in terms of money; in case of availability of the data on conditional constant costs the production costs of the produced steel could be computed.

The software set Simulator of metallurgical processes may be used both as an independent tool , not connected with the other systems and production equipment and can be installed with any computer. The Simulator of metallurgical processes may constitute a part of an Process control system of any facility, as well as of the Production control integrated system.

The Simulator of metallurgical processes has been used for more than 10 years. The accumulated experience proves the super adequacy of the models used, the accuracy of the calculation performed is in conformity with the accuracy of the tests carried out on the parallel basis.

Production consulning.png

The vast practical experience, deep knowledge of the steelmaking theory of the IBMT staff, as well as the simulation possibilities of the GIBBS® models package make it possible to solve with high efficiency the task related to development of new techniques, increase in the efficiency of the functioning production divisions, improvement in the quality of produced steel.

In the course of fulfilling the work modern analytic base and program simulators are made use of, which are constructed on the basis of an accurate thermodynamic calculation and take into consideration the peculiarities of the simulated facilities.

The simulators describe with high precision the whole multitude of heat and mass transfer processes, which take place in the steelmaking facilities. It’s very much helpful in modeling the course of the technological process and calculating modifications in the chemical composition and temperature of steel, slag and waste gases. Moreover, with the aid of simulation modeling the basic technological parameters of heat from the very beginning up to its end are determined, as well as its basic characteristics : the heat duration, materials and utilities consumption, down to the production costs calculation. The data, obtained in this way, allow to evaluate the efficiency of the functioning production and find most rational solutions for:

- increase in the quantity of products manufactured with the available equipment;
- reduction in the consumption of utilities and materials;
- adaptation (adjustment) of the technological regimes in conformity with changes in the production situation (modification in the materials used, product mix, equipment characteristics, etc.);
- evaluation of the efficiency of various ways of upgrading of the production practice;
- estimation of the possibility of using new materials, choice of most suitable of them;
- various kinds of activity, aimed at increasing the efficiency of the steelmaking divisions.

The thermodynamic models also serve to describe the processes of generation and transformation of non-metallic inclusions in steel. Conjunction of computer thermodynamic modeling with the possibilities of modern electronic microscopy enables the IBMT specialists to reveal the nature of origin of non-metallic inclusions and defects of the casted or formed material, determine the sources, causes of steel contamination. This integrated approach provides the possibility of developing most efficient technological solutions, aimed at improving the quality of steel produced, i.e., reducing the total degree of contamination and preventing generation of non-metallic inclusions of undesirable types.

Our enterprise possesses considerable experience in optimization of the steelmaking and casting techniques with the view of producing “pure” steel with preset characteristics of non-metallic inclusions, bringing to a minimum surface and internal defects, subskin contamination, bubbles, non-axial spot heterogeneity, etc.

Besides ensuring super quality of finished steel products this kind of research makes it possible to solve the problems of blockage of casting nozzles and stabilization of the casting process, rejection of steel in the consequent processing stages.

When such work is being carried out, the following problems are being solved:

- The causes of generation of defects ( shells, fractures and other non-conforming characteristics). This task includes also the analysis of the defect itself and determination of the conditions of generation and development of the defect;
- Development of the measures to be taken for removal of the causes of generation and development of the defect.



1. EAF control

1.1. EAF # 1 Byelorussian Steel Works (Zhlobin, Byelorussia).
1.2. EAF # 2, Byelorussian Steel Works (Zhlobin, Byelorussia).
1.3. EAF # 1, "Amurmetal" Steel Works (Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia).
1.4. EAF-50, "NKMZ" JSC (Kramatorsk, Ukraine). Estimated start-up in 2010.

2. Secondary metallurgy control

2.1. Integrated control of LF, VOD and RH facilities (five ladles with liquid metal are controlled simultaneously.), Steelmelting shop # 2, Byelorussian Steel Works (Zhlobin, Byelorussia).
2.2. LF and VOD, Steelmelting shop, "SERP I MOLOT" Moscow Steel Works (Moscow, Russia).
2.3. Integrated control of LF # 1, LF # 2, and VD, Steelmelting shop # 2 (five ladles with liquid metal are controlled simultaneously), "Amurmetal" Steel Works (Komsomolsk-on-Amur, Russia) – preliminary project.
2.4. LF, VD at steelmelting shop, "NKMZ" JSC (Kramatorsk, Ukraine). Estimated start-up in 2010.


The simulator of metallurgical processes has been developed for the United Metallurgical Company R&D Center (Vyksa, Russia) use.

The simulator allows to simulate technological processes in all the steelmaking facilities, installed at the rolling plant of the UMC (EAF, LF, and VD) and is intended for the analysis of the employed steelmaking techniques and development of new solutions, aimed at dealing with the problems, arising at the enterprise.

There is provided the possibility to transfer the data from the automatic process control system of the facilities into the simulator for analysis of the earlier actually produced heats with the purpose of revealing of the causes of the current problems (rejected products, overconsumption, violation of the production practice, etc.).

It’s planned to include the simulator into the delivery lot of the GIBBS® process control systems.


The simulating possibilities of the GIBBS® package have provided the possibility of using it not only in creating control systems, but also for solving a number of problems, related to development of steelmaking techniques, and namely:

1. OMK-Steel, UMC (Vyksa, Russia): Operating practices development:
- Localization of bottlenecks in the steelmaking production.
- Development of operating practices for yield increase up to 1 500 000 MT annual production.
- Evaluation of effectiveness of various kinds of row materials utilization (pig iron, SINTICOM, or semiproduct from Chusovskoi Steel Works).

2. “NKMZ” JSC (Kramatorsk, Ukraine): Evaluation of effectiveness of operating practices that was developed for the EAF under construction.
Computation of the heat time, consumption of energy, raw materials, alloying, deoxidizing and slag forming agents, for various operating practices:
- Technique of “two slag” in the EAF.
- Preliminary deoxidation and alloying operation in EAF and finally chemical adjustment in LF.
- All operations of deoxidation and alloying in LF.

3. Cherepovets Iron and Steel Integrated Works, Severstal Group (Cherepovets, Russia): Computation of hot metal efficient share in EAF charge.
The influence of hot metal share in EAF charge on the heat time, energy consumption, and other heat parameters was investigated. The efficient hot metal share was found.
The most efficient oxygen blowing practice by oxygen lance and injectors was developed. It has allowed to reduce energy consumption by 20 kW. h per 1 MT (6.7 %) and reduce the electric power input time by 3 min (8-10 %).

4. Moldavian Steel Works (Rybnitsa, Moldova): Reduction of nitrogen level in steel after operations in EAF and LF.
The mechanism and sources of nitrogen penetration into metal during smelting and secondary treatment were installed. The measures to restrict the penetration were developed. It has allowed to reduce nitrogen in steel billets from 70-120 ppm to 60-80 ppm, as well as to exclude peaks up of nitrogen in the heats.

5. Cherepovets Iron and Steel Integrated Works, Severstal Group (Cherepovets, Russia): Development of operating practices for increase of cleanliness of bearing and LCAK steels, as well as for reduction of clogging and extension of tundish life. The technology developed allows to cast low carbon low silicon aluminum killed steels with billet continuous casting machine.

6. “ZSMK” Iron and Steel Integrated Woks, Evraz Group (Novokuznetsk, Russia): Simulation of low carbon low silicon aluminum killed steels smelting (BOF and LF) under the utilization of various row and slag forming materials.

7. “SERP I MOLOT” Moscow Steel Works (Moscow, Russia): Development of operating practices of the whole steelmelting production rout.

8. “SERP I MOLOT” Moscow Steel Works (Moscow, Russia): Evaluation of lime effect on steel carburization process. Development of low carbon steel operating practices.

9. “SERP I MOLOT” Moscow Steel Works (Moscow, Russia): Development of VOD technique.

10. Moldavian Steel Works (Rybnitsa, Moldova): Evaluation of effectiveness of iron scale utilization for steel smelting.

The information on the GIBBS® systems, presented on this site, contains only general descriptions of the principles of construction of the GIBBS® control systems and characteristics of their performance, which may vary in practical application due to further development of these systems, as well as to the peculiarities of a certain production division and contractual terms and conditions.

EAF Melting Pouring

About the IBMT

The Innovative Bureau of Metallurgical Techniques (IBMT) was founded by a group of engineers and scientists-metallurgists for implementation of the projects, developed by them, at the steel plants. The most significant of them is the thermodynamic model of heat and mass transfer in the system “metal-slag-gas”.

The software ORAKUL and GIBBS® developed by the IBMT specialists has been made use of in the educational process at the Moscow High School of Steel and Alloys and at the metallurgical faculties of the Donetsk National Technical University (Ukraine) for more than 20 years.

The IBMT is continuously improving the created systems and never stops moving forward itself. At present it has at its disposal the personnel of highly qualified specialists in the fields of the theory of the metallurgical processes, practical steelmaking and automation of steelmaking processes.

The IBMT possesses the potential, which enables it to solve the problems of developing and improving the tech-niques of steelmaking and secondary treatment, when creating automatic steelmaking process control systems on the highest level.
All the implemented IBMT projects have been highly evaluated by the specialists. They have succeeded in significantly exceeding the target values , set by the specifications of the customers, and providing considerable technical and economic benefits.

The automatic steelmaking process control systems developed by the IMBT are distinguished by use of precise thermal and thermodynamic models, which enable the customer to calculate with high accuracy in the on-line mode the temperature and chemical composition of steel and slag.

The optimum control systems GIBBS® (the name of the earlier versions is ORACUL) implemented by the IBMT are known to have no rivals among the automatic steelmaking process control systems as far as the design principles and problems solution methods are concerned.

They allow to operate the heat process in the maximum automated regime on the basis of an accurate thermodynamic calculation.

Asea Steel 2009 Dr. A. Ponomarenko and Dr. A. Stomachin Adjustment of the system